I like this idea. It gives you a good way to generate income. It also starts making Debt a risk factor, because ultimately you could be sending your competition money eventually.
I know it's your first stab at this. Again I do like it, but I'm going to poke a hole in it. I'm doing this because I would like to see it make it into the game.
I buy cash. Then purchase stock, and win the game in two minutes.
See the problem is where does the initial pool come from? If it's not a quantity that's available from the game, like how you can buy steel all willy-nilly, then Someone has to buy into that. The chances are that if you're the person with the cash, you've probably got other plans for it. Now As a player and real life if you put it into a bond or other asset, suddenly it's not liquid. I've bought someone else's debt, right? Unless you sell the debt to someone else you can't get it back right away if you need it. You must wait for it to be repaid right? Or are we assuming those that bought into the debt will get paid dividends from interests payments?
There should be a threshold of debt that your company can carry on it's, proportional to the total value. if you exceed this ratio it should send your stock price tumbling. That's what happens in the real world. Anything beyond that someone has to buy that "new" debt. There needs to be a payoff period, and they can take it in stock or possibly in resources. Say the most expensive/necessary ones first.
So here's my first stab at a counter. Hopefully, this will get your brain surging onto a better idea to limit this than mine.
I really do like this idea, but we also have an issue with time. These games are supposed to be over in 30 minutes or so. That's the goal at least. So you would have to pay it back in say 5 minutes or something, and you may not be able to do that.
Mow that I think I like the idea of say people or the lender getting stock in your company. You could potentially loose and get bought out by carrying too much debt, so the computer takes over your company and instead of the buy out notice, you have to sit there and watch all of your claims and debt be auctioned off at a fraction of the price.