After opening the game back up and hitting the "Resume Campaign" button, it returned me to the same screen as above. The planet is rotating normally, I can mouse over missions, but can't select any of them. Mouse functions normally, but keyboard commands don't appear to be working (can't press escape, etc). Only way to back out of this screen that I have found is alt+f4.
Starting a new campaign appears to have fixed the errors. Let me know if you need anymore details, such as my computer build, driver versions, etc for debugging.